My grandmother in the 1939 register

My grandmother in the 1939 register

The 1939 register is a census-like snap shot of people in England and Wales that was taken just as the Second World War broke out. It was taken on 29 September 1939 and the information was used to produce identity cards and, once rationing was introduced in January 1940, to issue ration books.

There is actually also a 1939 register for Scotland too, but it is not available to view in the same way as the England and Wales register.

Due to this I had largely discounted the 1939 register as a source of information for my research because I was looking for people in Scotland.

When I was visiting my family recently we were talking about my maternal grandmother and about the house she worked in as a Cook in London before the war. We had the address from letters she had written, 20 Halsey Street, and my sister had been along to that address in modern day London and taken a photo of the outside.

My mum wondered whether it would be possible to find out anything about the people who she worked for. This resulted in me realising that I did have a reason to look in the 1939 register after all!

Nana Cook 1939

Nana recorded as a Cook in the 1939 register

Mary Anderson London

This is my grandmother in London – perhaps this is in the garden of 20 Halsey Street?

We found her in the register at exactly the address we knew from the letters. Unfortunately only domestic staff were listed at that address, no owners. I don’t know whether this means that they were away or perhaps were military people and so excluded from the 1939 Register because they were counted on some equivalent list that the military kept.

Notwithstanding the failure to discover who she worked for, it was lovely to find her in the register.

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A real register

On Monday, Tuesday and half of Wednesday (today), I was at the Scotland’s People centre in Edinburgh. I had a couple of main tasks I planned to do this time around. One was locating the marriage records of people who were born in Unst, and that I knew were married from census records, but they got married outside of Unst. I was able to search the database that my TNG website creates to produce a list of all those couples where I didn’t yet have a marriage date for them and I worked my way through that.

My other task was about Unst houses. I’ve written in the past about normalising the names of Unst houses, since they seem to choose a different spelling every census, and trying to locate them on the old maps. One piece of data that can sometimes help with this is the column available from the 1861 census onwards that records the “No. of Rooms with one or more Windows”. It’s not something that websites such as Ancestry and Find My Past include in their census transcriptions, but if you look at the images of the census returns in Scotland’s People then you can see all the columns.

I came across one problem with this data in the 1871 census. This column is at the far right of the page, and for Enumeration Districts 1, 2 and 3 the curve of the pages into the binding was such that the images did not show this column on all the even page numbers.

I had a chat with the supervisors at the Scotland’s People Centre and they decided that rather than put in a rescan request for all those pages, they would get the actual book out for me to look through!

Enumeration Book Cover

Example Enumeration Book Cover

I was very happy with this as you might imagine. I got to leaf through the actual 1871 Unst census return enumeration book. I was actually a bit bigger than I imagined it would be. I am so used to seeing the pages printed on A4 sheets, but the real thing is probably another 20% bigger. It was a fairly plain cover with the five Enumeration Books for Unst bound together. Each Enumeration book within the plain covered book still has it’s blue cover (rather like the 1911 cover shown here but in Landscape orientation for the pre-1911 census returns), so you are physically aware as you move from one Enumeration book to the next, and of course there are a number of blank pages at the end, which you don’t really realise when just looking at the images.

I had all my research from looking at 1871 census images ready in a table with empty boxes where I could write the missing numbers so it didn’t take too long to turn over each page and find the column. It was really tucked in there, so I was having to look sideways into the binding crease to read it, rescanning them wouldn’t have helped as it turned out.

No photography is allowed in the Scotland’s People research rooms, so I wasn’t able to take a picture of this real register book, but I won’t forget it.

Misheard place name?

I was transcribing a marriage record today where the groom gave an address in Aberdeen to the registrar in Stornoway (so he was unlikely to know the address). Unusually, the handwriting on this record is very clear and easy to read (oftentimes the handwriting is utterly atrocious!) so I’m absolutely certain of what it says.

No. When, Where, and How Married. Signature of Parties.
Rank or Profession, Whether Single or Widowed,
and Relationship (if any).
Age. Usual Residence
3 1903on the Eighth
day of January
at The Free Church
Manse, Back,
Stornoway
(Signed)
Henry Bruce

Herring Worker
(Bachelor)
29 10 Gasmine
Aberdeen

However, there doesn’t appear to be a street in Aberdeen called “Gasmine”.

In the 1901 census (2 years earlier), Henry Bruce is living in 25a Roslin Terrace.

Looking at a modern day map of Aberdeen at where Roslin Terrace is, quite close by are Jasmine Place, Way, and Terrace.

Ear

So I wonder whether the way Henry said “Jasmine”, with perhaps a strong Shetland accent, was misheard by the registrar as “Gasmine”?

Knitting belts

Knitting belts

Countryman Magazine

In a recent Countryman magazine, a reader asked if anyone could identify an object found in Norfolk.

It was a knitting belt.

knitting belt

My own knitting belt

I have always wondered how widespread the use of the knitting belt was.

Prior to the commercially produced knitting belt, a straw version, a wisp, was used by tucking it into the waistband, and knitting needles could then be stuck into the end.

wisp - early knitting belt

A straw wisp – an early version of the knitting belt

These and wooden versions were used in many areas of the UK.

Apparently, it is thought that although other devices were once used to support the right needle in the UK and elsewhere, the knitting belt is perhaps unique to Shetland, where they are called “makkin belts”.

However, they were possibly also used in the north east of Scotland. I know I have seen one in a museum in Nairn, near Inverness.


Knitters in Shetland wore their belts everywhere, walking home with a “kishie” full of peat, gathered with other knitters around the fire, the belt would still be in use because there was still knitting to be done.

Two women carrying kishies

Two women carrying kishies.
Photo Source: Shetland Museum

The “makkin belt” consisted of a leather pad stuffed with horsehair and attached to a belt. The technique requires the use of double point needles.

Shetlanders still use them.

So, how did a knitting belt  come to be found in Norfolk?

I wonder if  gutter girls from Shetland, who followed the herring all down the Scottish coast and as far as Great Yarmouth, gutting the herring, (taking their knitting with them to work on when off duty) introduced the knitting belt to others as they traveled.

Gutter Lasses

Gutter lasses knitting in front of barrels.
Photo Source: Shetland Museum

If anyone has any information about knitting belts used elsewhere, I would love to know!

Walk to Sandwick beach

A glorious May afternoon in Unst, warm but breezy, so I went for a walk along Sandwick Beach.

sheep beach

A beautiful sandy beach for a walk, but also lots of interest to see.

tirricks

Arctic terns (known as Tirricks in Shetland) have always nested here, but in much less numbers these days

otter aboot

Evidence of an otter about, and a very brief glimpse before he disappeared into a burrow to rest up in the heat of the day, postprandial rest maybe!

The Sandwick area has been occupied throughout history and traces of the various occupants (pictish/late iron age, norse) have been documented.

Sandwick Map

Map showing Sandwick Beach. Click on the map to go to the zoom-able version on the NLS website

Excavations have unearthed some of the stories (see the Sandwick Report).

An earlier excavation further along the beach shows a Viking longhouse.

longhouse

Viking Longhouse excavation

Much later there was a settlement of crofts above the beach, until those were cleared or abandoned.

hooses above beach

Crofts above the Sandwick beach

rudgings

“Rudgings” – heaps of stones that have been carefully gathered off the rigs (fields).

Further along from the end of the beach, along the headland, there is a churchyard with a chapel at Framgord.

yard

Sandwick burial ground

ancient stones 2

Sandwick burial ground – Some of the headstones date to medieval times.

3 graves

Graves of three members of the crew of S/S “Hop” from Bergen

In a corner of the yard there are three graves, three members of the crew of S/S “Hop” from Bergen, torpedoed 4.2.1940. The small Norwegian freighter had  a crew of 15 and all were lost.

S S Hop

Memorial to the crew of S/S “Hop” from Bergen

Well worth walking through the area, glimpsing traces of the history.

A trail for the area can be downloaded at the Shetland Amenity Website.

Light Keepers recorded at home

Muckle Flugga Lighthouse

Muckle Flugga from the seaward side
cc-by-sa/2.0 – © Mike Penningtongeograph.org.uk/p/941026

The North Unst Lighthouse, or as it is now known, Muckle Flugga Lighthouse, was one of the few lighthouses in Scotland which had a separate shore station that served as accommodation for the lighthouse keepers when they were off duty. Three Light Keepers would be on duty at any one time, and the others would be on shore leave.

Lighthouse Shore Station

The Shore Station, Burrafirth
cc-by-sa/2.0 – © Mike Penningtongeograph.org.uk/p/311395

In the census returns for Unst, you can see the Light Keepers recorded in the census at the Lighthouse, and their families recorded in the shore station.

1871 Census

ROAD, STREET, &c., and
No. or NAME of HOUSE.
NAME and Surname of each
Person.
RELATION
to Head of
Family
CON-
DITION
AGE
of
Rank, Profession, or OCCUPATION
Males Females
Light House Robert Burnett Head Mar 44 Principal Light Keeper
William Anderson Assistant Mar 37 Principal Assistant Keeper
Peter Anderson Assistant Mar 34 Assistant Light Keeper

1871 Census

ROAD, STREET, &c., and
No. or NAME of HOUSE.
NAME and Surname of each
Person.
RELATION
to Head of
Family
CON-
DITION
AGE
of
Rank, Profession, or OCCUPATION
Males Females
Light House Shore Station Elizabeth Anderson Head Mar 37 Light Keeper’s Wife
Laurence     Do Son 15 Scholar
Grace         Do Daur 11 Scholar
Catherine     Do Daur 5     Do

Except that is for 1861.

In 1861, the Light Keepers are all recorded as living with their families in the shore station, and there is no record of anyone at the Lighthouse. Now 1861 is some 134 years before the Lighthouse was automated in 1995, so there were definitely Light Keepers on site. Perhaps instead the problem was that this was the first census since the Lighthouse was built. It was first lit on 1 January 1858, so perhaps the enumerator simply wasn’t familiar with how he was supposed to record the keepers.

At the bottom of Page 25, of the 1861 census for Unst, Enumeration District 2, there is the following note:-

15 May 1862. Messrs Stevenson Engineers state 3 Lightkeepers were on the Lighthouse which is on the Island of Muckle Flugga. The ??????? with wives & famililes on Unst.

I’m not quite able to decipher all the words in the last sentence so an image is shown below if any of you can decipher it. However, you get the gist of it. They weren’t where the enumerator said they were!

Light Keepers Census Note

Light Keepers Census Note

Oops!

Christmas in my childhood

I recently got asked to come to the local nursery and talk to the pre-schoolers about what Christmas was like when I was a child.

Did that make me feel old? Well yes it did!

Anyway, I thought about what I could tell them.

I tried to get them to imagine a small croft house, small rooms, no heating apart from the living room with its Raeburn cooker.

I took in an old oil lamp and asked them to imagine –

No electricity, no lights, no TV, no computers, no I pads etc.

Then Christmas itself, no room for a Christmas tree in the small living room that had to hold a table where we ate Christmas lunch.

No fairy lights of course.

We decorated with Christmas cards and paper chains.

I can remember when we started to get those fold out bells.

decorations 1970s

My older brother liked to try and find the hidden presents (under the bed) but I liked a surprise.

Presents were inexpensive items and some made by my Dad – a cradle for a doll, a basic doll’s house that we could go on to decorate and furnish from scraps of wallpaper and furniture made from matchboxes etc.

I remember some very snowy weather in the run up to Christmas, and the fear that the big parcel from friends in London would not be able to get through to us.

That parcel was such a delight, with lots of small items.

Spices and other items for our Mum who used to be a cook in London, and missed all sorts of items to use in her cooking, which obviously were not to be found in Unst.

Pomegranates I remember used to come in the box.

One year I got a plastic hen, and when pushed down she laid an egg.

That has remained in my memory all these years so obviously I really liked it!

Christmas lunch was a hen from the flock that had to be killed and cooked skilfully by our mother, otherwise it would surely have been a tough old bird.

All the trimmings to go with the bird and make the feast go further

then Christmas pudding, Christmas cake etc.

No TV in those early days, so radio perhaps and lots of board games, as well as the new toys to play with.  A pleasant time was had by all, and we didn’t have or need to spend vast amounts of money to achieve that enjoyment.

Rhoda Wibbie Pat